TRANSPORT & COMMUNICATION
(ROAD, AIR & RAIL).
Prior to independence, no motorable road in the district was
existed, Porter tracks were the only means of transportation
of goods in the remote areas. Therefore, at the time of opening
of Administrative centres in various places of the districts,
top priority was given to porter tracks and mule paths for
speedy development of the area. In the initial stage, these
existing tracks were improved for the easy movement of Govt.
Officials and porters from one place to another. Thereby,
regular porters were recruited in the form of Agency Labour
Corps(ALC). These porters were the back-bone of the administration
who carried their task under the most difficult geographical
conditions. When the administrative activities increased and
new administrative centres were established in the far-flung
area of the districts, it was felt necessary to construct
roads for better communications and efficient discharge of
administrative function for execution of various development
programmes. Hence, attention for road construction was paid
only during 1951-52.
The construction of first road in Lower Subansiri
district from Kimin to Ziro (94kms) was started in 1952-53
by the Army Engineers and was opened for vehicular-traffic
in the year 1958. Later on, it was widened and blacktop by
the Border Roads Development Organisation(BRTF) and also connected
Raga circle via Tamen. The construction work of Ziro-Palin
road (102 km) was started in 1967 and was opened for light
vehicles transport in the year 1972. A good number of roads
such as Tamen-Tali road, Rural link roads and other roads
are under construction and the same are expected to be completed
As per records available, at present, the
total length of road in Lower Subansiri and Kurung Kumey districts
are 966.237 kms. Out of which 364.520 kms. are under PWD,
528.375 kms. under BRTF, 72.452 kms. under RWD and 0.890 kms.
under forest. Out of seventeen administrative centres, nine
circles, viz; Ziro,Yachuli, Raga, Palin, Sangram, Koloriang,
Nyapin,Dollungmukh and Pistana are connected with the District
Headquarter of Lower Subansiri by roads. Remaining eight circles
viz; Tali, Pipsorang, Damin, Parsi-Parlo, Chambang, Sarli,
Kamporijo and Yangte are yet to be connected by roads. Regular
passenger services from District HQ, Ziro-North Lakhinpur,
Ziro-Itanagar, Ziro-Daporijo, Ziro-Sangram, Ziro-Koloriang
and Ziro-Guwahati are being provided by State Transport and
private buses. During the year 2001-2002, total of 197 vehicles
were registered including 2-wheelers in the District. North
Lakhimpur is the nearest Rail-head of the Lower Subansiri
district, the distance of which from the district Hq, Ziro
is about 115 kms.
In the districts, the fair-weather landing
ground at Old Ziro has been functioning since 1952. It was
made all –weather Air field by 1967 and Vayudoot service
is being introduced in the year, 1985-86. Another landing
ground at Nyapin is also functioning. Elementary landing facilities
for Helicopter area also exists at Tali, Chambang, Sarli,
Koloriang and Damin. Lilabari (North Lakhimpur) is the nearest
Airport, the distance of which from Ziro is about 125 Kms.
6(six) numbers of Helipad/Dropping zone are functioning in
Prior to the opening of a sub-post office at Ziro, all mails
meant for offices and staff used to be delivered at the then
Base office, Kimin, served by the post office at North Lakhimpur.
The Base office at Kimin in turn was dispatching the mails
in the interiors through Dak-Runners. The branch post office
at Kimin was established in 1952. To facilitate quick contacts,
all the important administrative centres were provided with
wireless Transmitting Sets operated by Assam Rifles though
some of the administrative centres including the district
HQ have now been linked with motorable roads, yet system of
carrying the mails by Dak- Runners is still in existence due
to limited roads and border situations.
In 1959, a sub-post office was opened at Ziro. Later on, this
sub-post office was provided with telegraphic facility. As
the intensity of work increased, new branch post offices were
opened at different administrative centres. As on 31.3.2001,
the district has one number of sub-post office with telegraphic
facility, one number of sub-post office without Tele facility,
and 20 numbers of EDBPO without Tele-facilities at different
administrative centres are functioning. Six numbers at Ziro
town and 20 numbers at different administrative centres were
fixed with letter boxes for public convenience.
At present, districts are having seven telephone Exchanges
with STD facility Code – 03788 at district HQ, Ziro.
There are 2332 telephone connections and 61 numbers of private
PCO are functioning in the district. First Telephone Exchange
with 50 lines was commissioned on 31-3-1966 at district HQ,
Lower Subansiri and Kurung Kumey district has vast power potentials.
The topography and climatic condition create innumerable perennial
rivers and streams, which are capable of releasing Hydel Electric
power for economic development. However, Hydro-electric potential
of the district has largely remained untapped. In Lower Subansiri,
the first work of electrification of Ziro town-ship was started
in the year 1960 with the installation of one 100 k.w. Diesel
Generating Power Station,in1966 at Koloriang, in 1967 at Nyapin
administrative circles and in 1967 at Michi-Bamin, Hija and
Mudang-Tage villages have also been provided electricity by
installing diesel generating sets with 6.6 and 15 k.w. installed
The first ever Micro-Hydel of the district was commissioned
on 24-9-1977 at Mai (Ph-I) with installed capacity of 2000
k.w. The Mai Ph-II Micro-Hydel was commissioned during 1984
with installed capacity of 1000 k.w. The Tago Hydel project
with installed capacity of 4510 k.w. was commissioned during
March,1992.The work of Ranganadi Hydro Electric project is
commissioner with a total capacity of 405 M.W. The total installed
capacity of electricity in the district is 7.923 M.W. Out
of which, Micro-hydel account for 7.510 M.W. and rest 0.413
M.W. is for D.G.sets . Ziro town-ship and 295 villages of
the district have been electrified so far among 595 villages
as per 1991 Census.
As per record available, the total electricity generated in
the districts during the year 2001-2002 was 14.237496 Million
units. Out of which, Micro-Hydel accounts 14.310440 Million
units and rest 0.017056 Million units for D.G.sets. As per
records available, the total electricity consumption during
2001-2002 was 3.985785 Million KWH by different uses. Out
of which, domestic consumption accounts for 1.733143 Million
KWH, commercial 0.225748, public lighting 0.621964, industrial
0.002474 and other accounts for 1.402456 Million KWH respectively.
State Bank of India is the only nationalised bank having business
in the district. The first State Bank of India branch was
commissioned during the year 1971 at Ziro, HQ. At present,
the district has three branches at Ziro, Raga, and Yazali.
Besides these, the Arunachal Pradesh State Co-op. Apex Bank
Ltd. was opened a branch for the first time at Old Ziro during
1981-82 and Arunachal Pradesh Rural Bank branch at Yazali
during the year 1985-86. As on 31-03-2002, the district has
2 branches of APSCAB at Old Ziro and Hapoli; and 1 A.P. Rural
bank branch at Yazali. As on 31-3-1981, the district was having
only 1 State Bank of India branch at Ziro and no other bank
was established as compared to till date. During the year
2001-2002, total deposits at different branches accounts to
Rs.3741.88 lakhs with total outstanding loan of Rs.451.99
lakhs. Up and down trends of profit and loss occurred at different
branches stands as Rs.68.76 lakhs and Rs.10.60 lakhs respectively
during the year 2001-2002.
Co-operative institutions plays a vital role in changing socio-economic
conditions of the people. The co-operative movement in the
district was started in 1958 with the opening of Apatani Co-operative
General Store at Ziro. The significant of this movement is
to supply essential commodities to the consumers at control
rate. Upto 1981, only 8 numbers of co-operative societies
were set up within the jurisdiction of the district. As on
31-03-2002, 55 numbers of co-operative societies are functioning
in the district. Out of which 23 numbers are Multipurpose
Co-operative, 3 numbers are LAMP(Credit), 6 numbers are consumer
co-operative, and 23 are other/general co-operative.
At present, different co-operatives societies of Lower Subansiri
are functioning with 3296 members, working capital of Rs.52.24
lakhs, paid-up share capital of Rs.71.37 lakhs and owned fund
of Rs.859.43 lakhs.
One Tuberculosis Control Programme centre has been functioning
since 1973 under one District Tuberculosis Officer with team
of workers for detection and control of T.B. in the district.
The centre is being covered both curative and preventive aspect.
Facilities are also provided for the domicilliary treatment
to the T.B. patients.
The District Health Education Bureau has been functioning
since 1977. This bureau was functioning without Health Educator
till 1984. One Health Educator was posted in the last part
of 1984 and since then, it has been functioning successfully.
Health Educator post was up-graded to Deputy Mass Education
Information Officer in the month of July'1995. The Health
Education Bureau is being provided health educational activities
to all the national programmes for better implementation and
Forest activities was first introduced in Arunachal Pradesh
in 1946. In 1948, Balipara Forest Division was established
for protection, afforestation and exploitation of forests.
This Forest Division covered both Subansiri and Kameng districts.
Due to shortage of technical personnel, full-fledged functioning
of this division could start from 1955 under one Divisional
Forest Officer. In february 1962, the original Balipara Forest
Division was divided into Kameng and Subansiri Forest Divisions
to extend the forest activities into the interior places.
Again in 1970, the Subansiri Forest Division was bifurcated
into Banderdewa and Hapoli Forest Division. Later, Hq. of
Hapoli Forest Division was shifted to Hapoli(Ziro).
Forest wealth plays vital role from economic point of view
by earning revenue for the district. The forest are managed
under the provisions of the Assam Forest Regulation of 1981
along with Indian Forest Act and Arunachal Pradesh Forest
Manual of 1990, under which local people of Arunachal Pradesh
have been given special privileges to collect timbers and
other forest produces on free of royalty and not for sale
or barter or trade but for their own uses. People do also
enjoy privileges of hunting, fishing etc.; but there is limitation
on imposition of wildlife Protection Act, 1972. The local
people are allowed 7.5% concession in the settlement of forest
coups muhals and are allowed 50% concession for the security
deposits in any contract for the purpose of settlement of
forest coups muhals etc. The timber permit for extraction
of wood are only issued to the local people of Arunachal Pradesh.
However, the movement of unfinished timber products outside
Arunachal Prdesh was banned from 1982 onwards.
At present, the district has only one forest division with
its headquarter at Hapoli (Ziro), 6 ranges, namely; Hapoli,
Yachuli, Raga, Talle Valley and Palin of Hapoli Forest Division
including one range office of wasteland development division
and one forest Beat.
The District forest has 51,587.50 hectares under reserved
forest, 45,292 hectares under proposed reserved forests and
3,700 hectares under proposed Anchal Reserved Forest totaling
to 1,00,579.50 hectares. The important forest species from
economic point of view are hollock (Terminalia), Jutuli (Altingia
Excelsa), Bahra (Terminalia Belericia), Amari (Ammora Wallichie),
Sam (Artocarpus Chaplasa), Chapa (Michelia and Magnolia species),
Blue Pine (Pinus Wallichaina) etc.
In the district, during 1999-2000, 516 hectares of land have
been brought under Apnavan, 375 hectares under Afforestation,
363 hectares under MFP/MNP, 110 hectare under ANR and 80 hectares
under Social forestry. Upto date area of plantation as on
31st March'1999 was 935 hectares under artificial plantation,
180 hectare under Social Forestry and 1550 hectare under Rehabilitation
of degraded jhum land (Apnavan). In the year 2000-2001, not
a single hectare of area was brought under plantation /afforestation
in the district. During the year 2001-2002, 40 hectares of
land was brought under plantation (Apnavan).
HUSBANDARY AND VETERINARY
Earlier the Directorate of Agriculture looks after the Veterinary
and Animal Husbandary activities in the district. In the year
1977-78, the Animal Husbandary and Veterinary department was
separated from Agricultural department and declared as independent
Livestock plays a vital role in the socio-economic life of
the people of the district. Till last few decades, socio-economic
status of a personal use to be assessed by the numbers of
livestock especially mithuns owned by an individual. The people
are non-vegetarian and prefer meat as an essential item of
food in their diet. In rural areas almost every family domesticates
mithun, cow, sheep, goat, pig and poultry. The animal husbandary
activities for the development of livestock are mainly divided
into three aspects :-
(a) Animal health coverage
(b) Livestock developments and production and
Education and training.
ANIMAL HEALTH COVERAGE :-
The objective of Veterinary Dispensaries and Veterinary Aid
Centres are to provide an adequate and appropriate Veterinary
aid to the livestock and poultry population through out the
district in such a way that almost all the villages are brought
under Animal Husbandary networks, thus minimizing loss of
animal by epidemic of both infectious and contagious nature.
For effective animal health coverage , at present, 9 veterinary
Dispensaries are functioning in the district, which are located
at Siro, Ziro Town, Yachuli, Palin, Nyapin, Koloriang, Damin,
Tali and Raga.
As on 31.03.2002, the district is having 13 Veterinary Aid
Centres which are located at Old Ziro, Rubdi,Yangte, Chambang,
Nyapin, Sangram, Sarli, Roing, Boa-Simla, Pungrung, Sito ,
Ambam, and Dollungmukh. Upto 1977-78, the total numbers of
Veterinary Dispensaries and Veterinary Aid Centres within
the jurisdiction of present Lower Subansiri & Kurung Kumey
districts were 7 and 2 respectively as against 9 and 6 upto
In addition to above, the district has one Mobile Veterinary
Dispensary which was opened during 1984-85 and one District
Diagnostic Laboratory at Ziro.
(b) LIVESTOCK DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION :-
Due to the availability of abundant green pasture, the district
is conducive for rearing cattle, pig, poultry, Mithun and
Goat. One fodder farm at Yachuli has been functioning in the
district and are supplying green fodder to cattle breeding
farm. Development of pasture land is also undertaken simultaneously
with feed and fodder development programme.
In the district, great emphasis has been laid on extensive
cross-breeding programme to improve the local livestock for
better and more production of milk, meat, eggs etc.
To enhance the Animal Husbandary activities in the districts,
distribution of breeding Bulls, exotic Dairy cows, pigs, sheeps
etc. are being undertaken every year to progressive and deserving
local farmers on subsidy basis for cross breeding and multiplication.
For the development of "Mithun" an animal reared
by the people for its socio-economic value is cross-breeds
as Dairy Animals. At present, 6 Cattle up-grading centres
have been setup in the district, out of which 3 centres are
in Yachuli circle, 1 in Pistana circle, 1 in Raga circle and
1 in Palin circle respectively.
Besides, one Diary/Cattle Farm, one Goat Farm, and one Chick
Rearing Centre are functioning in the district. The poultry
farm and chick rearing centre distribute poultry nits to the
farmers on subsidy basis under PLAN.
EDUCATION AND TRAINING :-
In-service courses of training to the staff of Animal Husbandary
and Veterinary department and short term training programme
to acquaint the farmers with various livestock development
activities are carried out regularly. A school of Veterinary
science and Animal Husbandary has also been setup for the
training purpose at Pasighat for the district as well as for
the state as a whole.
following table shown the numbers of Animals/Birds treated
in Lower Subansiri and Kurung Kumey districts:-
Land of Lower Subansiri and Kurung Kumey districts offers
good scope for development of fishery and the people are increasingly
coming forward to take up it as a subsidiary occupation. Lower
Subansiri district can boost the unique position of paddy-cum-fish
culture. Fish farms are one of the items of dietary of the
people living in this district. Fishing is also a ceremonial
ritual both as a form of sports and traditional custom.
The fisheries activities were initiated in Arunachal Pradesh
in the year 1957-58 under the Agriculture Department in the
month of September, 1980. The fisheries department has been
separated from the agriculture department and declared as
fisheries development activities in Lower Subansiri was first
introduced in the year 1958-59, when the Head of Reru village,
by name Padi Lalyang took up mirror carp culture in a tank
constructed by him.
The district has a potential for scientifically tapping of
inland fish wealth. In the seventh Plan period , emphasis
has been given for intensification of Paddy-cum-fish culture,
integrated fish farming , reclamation of beels, lakes etc.
construction of fish farms and fish seed farms etc.
As on March, 2002, area brought under Pisci-culture was 780
hectares, water area developed was 780 hectares and Paddy-cum-Fish
Culture was 625 hectares At present, the district has 6 numbers
of Govt. Fish Farm, 10 numbers of People's fish farm, 465
number of village fish ponds and 260 numbers of other fish
ponds as against 6, 9, 560 and 235 numbers respectively as
on March, 1999 and 6, 9, 643 and 240 numbers respectively
as on 31-03-2000.
Under Rural Agricultural scheme, village are allowed to construct
fish ponds on 50% subsidy basis. This scheme was introduced
in the district during 1972-73. More and more fish farms also
being established for adequate supply of fingerlings to the
villagers. Fingerlings distributed during the year 2001-2002
to the villagers were 22.00 lakhs number.
Further, to cater the demand of villages for fish seeds, especially
against paddy-cum-fish culture in Apatani valley which is
a unique programme in this district, the High Altitude Fish
Seed Farm, covering an area of 7.4 hectares of land was established
at Tarin (near Ziro town) under NEC in 1985-86. Total water
area covered is 3.0 hectares and total effected water area
covered is 2.75 hectare. Total number of ponds under farm
are 74. Out of which 46 numbers are nursery ponds, 16 are
rearing ponds and 12 are stocking ponds. Total hatchling produced
during 1997-98 was 61.75 lakhs and total sold out was 8.3
lakhs. Total table fish production during 1997-98 was 159
kgs. and number of fish seeds produced was 61.15 lakhs. Number
of fish farmers benefitted from farm were 309 and total revenue
earned was 51,587. Total fish production during 1999-2000
was 155 M.T. as against 152 M.T. during 1998-99. In the year
2000-2001, total fish production was 157 M.T.During the year
2001-2002, total fish production was 160 M.T. and total fingerlings
produced was 22.00 laks.
At present, one District Industries Centre is functioning
at the district HQ,Ziro. The main objective of the DIC is
the establishment of craft centres/weaving units, comprehensive
production centres, establishment of small scale Industries
centres and to provide necessary technical, economic, management
and other guidance.
There is no factory in the district which is registered under
Factory Act,1948. So far the DIC, Ziro has registered 338
numbers of small Scale Industries Units in the district, which
are eligible for all incentive and subsidy available for industrially
backward areas. DIC has been implementing the scheme for self
employment to educated un-employed youth and deputes local
youths for Industrial management training and Entrepreneur
Development Programme in various parts of India. The DIC also
provides raw material assistance to small and cottage Industries
through raw material. Banks of APIDFC and extends technical
guidance to Entrepreneurs.
Within the present jurisdiction of Lower Subansiri district,2(two)
units of Sericulture demonstration Centres at Deed under Pistana
circle and Manpolyang under Ziro circle are functioning.
Agriculture is the main occupation of the inhabitants of the
district. They practices both Jhum and settled cultivation
in the form of WRC/TRC. The Apatani Tribe who lives in the
area near the district HQ prefers to do settled cultivation
on a vast stretch of fertile land with highly developed irrigation
system whereas shifting (Jhuming) cultivation is being practiced
mainly by Nishis, Hill Miris and Sulung tribes. Jhuming is
the products of century old experience of the Hill men in
the North-East region. The climate and soil of the district
is conducive for cultivation of Paddy, Maize, Millet, Wheat,
Potato, Chilly, Ginger, Pulses, Oil seeds, Sugarcane, Fruit
crops and other vegetable crops. The net area sown of the
district was 24392 hectares. In order to grow more food grains,
the agriculture department has been providing the farmers
with grant of subsidy for development of land and also providing
high yielding varieties seeds, fertilizers and tools at subsidy
rates. The government is also providing free plants protection
services to the farmers. During the year 2001-2002, 118 hectares
of land were brought under fertilizers.
In the district one Govt.Agriculture Farm has been functioning
at Yazali since 1961 with an area of 20 acres. This farm earns
good revenue by supplying seed and selling vegetables to different
part of the district.
The establishment of Horticulture Department in the districts
are mainly for (i) Procurement and distribution of improved
(ii) Opening of new Orchards/people horticulture garden.
(iii) Scab eradication and plant protection.
(iv) Rejuvenation of old and un-productive fruits plants and
horticultural tools and implements.
(v) Cardamom cultivation and
(vi) Vegetable cultivation.
soil and climatic condition of the districts are favourable
for growing Horticultural crops like Apple, pears, plum, orange,
banana, guava etc.
At present, 4 nos. of Police station at different administrative
Hq. with 167 police personnel are functioning in the district.
There are 3 (three) nos. of Police Outpost,5 nos. of WT net
and 2 nos.of Fire Station at district Hq. and Old Ziro are
also functioning in the district for an effective security
During the year 2001-2002, 136 incidences of crime cases were
reported and 20 nos. of road accidents was reported as against
3 nos. during 1998-99, 16 nos. during 1999-2000 and 13 numbers
during 2000-2001. 20 nos. of vehicles and 13 nos. of persons
killed were reported during the year, 2001-2002. During the
year 2001-2002, fire accident occurred was 15 times with estimated
loss of Rs.23.92 lakhs as against 6 times with estimated loss
of Rs.6.00 lakhs during 1998-99, 7 times with estimated loss
of Rs.10.00 lakhs during 1999-2000 and 1 time with estimated
loss of Rs.2.50 lakhs during 2000-2001.
The district has one number of employment exchange under the
Deputy Commissioner, Ziro. During 2001-2002, total of 375
persons (male=201 and female=174) job seekers were registered
their names in the Employment Exchange as against 535 (330
(+) 205) during the year 1998-99, 384 ( male=219 (+) female=165)
during the year,1999-2000 and 569 (male=369 (+) female=200
during the year 2000-2001. Non of the job seeker belong to
Non-APST was registered during the year 2001-2002.
To preserve the cultural heritage of the local people, the
District Research Officer has been established at Ziro during
the year 1957. The department is putting all possible effort
to preserve the culture in two ways i.e by studying the culture
and language and also by preserving old aged materials/articles
of the people. Collection and preparation of report of field
data on the culture of different tribes of the district are
being done for Monographic books.
on 31st March’2002 total specimen collected and preserved
of old aged materials/articles in the District Museum in numbers
was 687. A sum of Rs.4080/- revenue was earned during 2001-2002
by selling of research publications in the district.
AND DEATH EVENT
Registration of birth and death events is compulsory under
the births and deaths Registration Act .1969 (No.18 of 1969)
and it is enforced in the district with effect from 31st June’1969.
In the district, the Deputy Commissioner is the Ex-Officio
District Registrar of Births and Deaths. District Statistical
Officer is the Additional District Registrar. The Administrative
Officer in-charge of respective circle is the registrar and
VLWs/Teacher in-charges of the school and Gram Sevikas are
the Sub-Registrar of Births and Deaths Events.
Responsibility for reporting of vital event of rural areas
to the Registrar or Sub-Registrar lies with Gaon Buras/Gram
Panchayat Members. The Head of the family or nearest relatives
should also take initiative for reporting vital event. For
the events occurring in Hospital/PHC boarding Houses etc.
it is the duty of the Head Institution to report the occurrence
of vital event to the concern Registrar so that the event
can be registered within the stipulated time period.
Birth and Death event occurring in a village / Town are to
be registered at the Registration Unit under whose Administrative
Jurisdiction that are falls.
Information of Birth and Death events are to be reported in
writing to the concern Registrar within 20 days of its occurrence.
FOR DELAY REGISTRATION:
(a) After 20 days but within 30 days can be registered on
payment of late fee of Rs.3/-.
(b) After 30 days but within one year can be registered with
prior permission of Magistrate and on production of an Affidavit
made before an Executive Magistrate or Authorised Officer
on payment of late fee of Rs.5/-.
(c) After one year shall be registered with prior permission
of the Magistrate and on production of an Affidavit made before
Magistrate First Class or Executive Magistrate on payment
of late fee of Rs.10/-.
rule also permit on the registration of birth event without
name of a child and subsequently name can be enter in the
Register within one year without fee and after one year on
payment of Rs.5/-
and Death event occur in the Hospital/PHC can be obtained
certificate with prior permission of the Registrar by applying
an application in plain paper.
District has 8Nos of Registration Unit in rural area and 1
No in urban area. During the year 2002, 1519 Nos of live births
and 183Nos. of death event were reported to all the registration
unit of the district as against 613 and 171Nos. during 1999.
During 2002,21Nos. of infant death event and 24 Nos of still
birth events were reported as against 18, and 16Nos. during
The Inspector of Legal Metrology Office has been established
in the district in March’ 1995. The main objective of
the unit is to educate the mass, trading unit and user about
the correct use of Weight and Measure, and how the metric
system is more beneficial to the people.
Legal Metrology Department is mainly responsible for enforcement
of the following Acts and Rules:-
- The Standard of weight and measure (Enforcement) Act. 1985.
- The Consumer Protection Act. 1986.
- The Packaged Commodities Rules. 1977 and
- The Arunachal Pradesh Weight and Measure (Enforcement Rule1989).
present, the district is functioning with 4611Nos. of Weights,
725Nos. Capacity measures, 544Nos. weighting instrument, 185Nos.
of length measures, 24 Nos. of other machines and 4Nos. of