Prior to independence, no motorable road in the district was existed, Porter tracks were the only means of transportation of goods in the remote areas. Therefore, at the time of opening of Administrative centres in various places of the districts, top priority was given to porter tracks and mule paths for speedy development of the area. In the initial stage, these existing tracks were improved for the easy movement of Govt. Officials and porters from one place to another. Thereby, regular porters were recruited in the form of Agency Labour Corps(ALC). These porters were the back-bone of the administration who carried their task under the most difficult geographical conditions. When the administrative activities increased and new administrative centres were established in the far-flung area of the districts, it was felt necessary to construct roads for better communications and efficient discharge of administrative function for execution of various development programmes. Hence, attention for road construction was paid only during 1951-52.

The construction of first road in Lower Subansiri district from Kimin to Ziro (94kms) was started in 1952-53 by the Army Engineers and was opened for vehicular-traffic in the year 1958. Later on, it was widened and blacktop by the Border Roads Development Organisation(BRTF) and also connected Raga circle via Tamen. The construction work of Ziro-Palin road (102 km) was started in 1967 and was opened for light vehicles transport in the year 1972. A good number of roads such as Tamen-Tali road, Rural link roads and other roads are under construction and the same are expected to be completed soon.

As per records available, at present, the total length of road in Lower Subansiri and Kurung Kumey districts are 966.237 kms. Out of which 364.520 kms. are under PWD, 528.375 kms. under BRTF, 72.452 kms. under RWD and 0.890 kms. under forest. Out of seventeen administrative centres, nine circles, viz; Ziro,Yachuli, Raga, Palin, Sangram, Koloriang, Nyapin,Dollungmukh and Pistana are connected with the District Headquarter of Lower Subansiri by roads. Remaining eight circles viz; Tali, Pipsorang, Damin, Parsi-Parlo, Chambang, Sarli, Kamporijo and Yangte are yet to be connected by roads. Regular passenger services from District HQ, Ziro-North Lakhinpur, Ziro-Itanagar, Ziro-Daporijo, Ziro-Sangram, Ziro-Koloriang and Ziro-Guwahati are being provided by State Transport and private buses. During the year 2001-2002, total of 197 vehicles were registered including 2-wheelers in the District. North Lakhimpur is the nearest Rail-head of the Lower Subansiri district, the distance of which from the district Hq, Ziro is about 115 kms.

In the districts, the fair-weather landing ground at Old Ziro has been functioning since 1952. It was made all –weather Air field by 1967 and Vayudoot service is being introduced in the year, 1985-86. Another landing ground at Nyapin is also functioning. Elementary landing facilities for Helicopter area also exists at Tali, Chambang, Sarli, Koloriang and Damin. Lilabari (North Lakhimpur) is the nearest Airport, the distance of which from Ziro is about 125 Kms. 6(six) numbers of Helipad/Dropping zone are functioning in the district.


Prior to the opening of a sub-post office at Ziro, all mails meant for offices and staff used to be delivered at the then Base office, Kimin, served by the post office at North Lakhimpur. The Base office at Kimin in turn was dispatching the mails in the interiors through Dak-Runners. The branch post office at Kimin was established in 1952. To facilitate quick contacts, all the important administrative centres were provided with wireless Transmitting Sets operated by Assam Rifles though some of the administrative centres including the district HQ have now been linked with motorable roads, yet system of carrying the mails by Dak- Runners is still in existence due to limited roads and border situations.

In 1959, a sub-post office was opened at Ziro. Later on, this sub-post office was provided with telegraphic facility. As the intensity of work increased, new branch post offices were opened at different administrative centres. As on 31.3.2001, the district has one number of sub-post office with telegraphic facility, one number of sub-post office without Tele facility, and 20 numbers of EDBPO without Tele-facilities at different administrative centres are functioning. Six numbers at Ziro town and 20 numbers at different administrative centres were fixed with letter boxes for public convenience.

At present, districts are having seven telephone Exchanges with STD facility Code – 03788 at district HQ, Ziro. There are 2332 telephone connections and 61 numbers of private PCO are functioning in the district. First Telephone Exchange with 50 lines was commissioned on 31-3-1966 at district HQ, Ziro.


Lower Subansiri and Kurung Kumey district has vast power potentials. The topography and climatic condition create innumerable perennial rivers and streams, which are capable of releasing Hydel Electric power for economic development. However, Hydro-electric potential of the district has largely remained untapped. In Lower Subansiri, the first work of electrification of Ziro town-ship was started in the year 1960 with the installation of one 100 k.w. Diesel Generating Power Station,in1966 at Koloriang, in 1967 at Nyapin administrative circles and in 1967 at Michi-Bamin, Hija and Mudang-Tage villages have also been provided electricity by installing diesel generating sets with 6.6 and 15 k.w. installed capacity respectively.

The first ever Micro-Hydel of the district was commissioned on 24-9-1977 at Mai (Ph-I) with installed capacity of 2000 k.w. The Mai Ph-II Micro-Hydel was commissioned during 1984 with installed capacity of 1000 k.w. The Tago Hydel project with installed capacity of 4510 k.w. was commissioned during March,1992.The work of Ranganadi Hydro Electric project is commissioner with a total capacity of 405 M.W. The total installed capacity of electricity in the district is 7.923 M.W. Out of which, Micro-hydel account for 7.510 M.W. and rest 0.413 M.W. is for D.G.sets . Ziro town-ship and 295 villages of the district have been electrified so far among 595 villages as per 1991 Census.

As per record available, the total electricity generated in the districts during the year 2001-2002 was 14.237496 Million units. Out of which, Micro-Hydel accounts 14.310440 Million units and rest 0.017056 Million units for D.G.sets. As per records available, the total electricity consumption during 2001-2002 was 3.985785 Million KWH by different uses. Out of which, domestic consumption accounts for 1.733143 Million KWH, commercial 0.225748, public lighting 0.621964, industrial 0.002474 and other accounts for 1.402456 Million KWH respectively.


State Bank of India is the only nationalised bank having business in the district. The first State Bank of India branch was commissioned during the year 1971 at Ziro, HQ. At present, the district has three branches at Ziro, Raga, and Yazali. Besides these, the Arunachal Pradesh State Co-op. Apex Bank Ltd. was opened a branch for the first time at Old Ziro during 1981-82 and Arunachal Pradesh Rural Bank branch at Yazali during the year 1985-86. As on 31-03-2002, the district has 2 branches of APSCAB at Old Ziro and Hapoli; and 1 A.P. Rural bank branch at Yazali. As on 31-3-1981, the district was having only 1 State Bank of India branch at Ziro and no other bank was established as compared to till date. During the year 2001-2002, total deposits at different branches accounts to Rs.3741.88 lakhs with total outstanding loan of Rs.451.99 lakhs. Up and down trends of profit and loss occurred at different branches stands as Rs.68.76 lakhs and Rs.10.60 lakhs respectively during the year 2001-2002.

Co-operative institutions plays a vital role in changing socio-economic conditions of the people. The co-operative movement in the district was started in 1958 with the opening of Apatani Co-operative General Store at Ziro. The significant of this movement is to supply essential commodities to the consumers at control rate. Upto 1981, only 8 numbers of co-operative societies were set up within the jurisdiction of the district. As on 31-03-2002, 55 numbers of co-operative societies are functioning in the district. Out of which 23 numbers are Multipurpose Co-operative, 3 numbers are LAMP(Credit), 6 numbers are consumer co-operative, and 23 are other/general co-operative.

At present, different co-operatives societies of Lower Subansiri are functioning with 3296 members, working capital of Rs.52.24 lakhs, paid-up share capital of Rs.71.37 lakhs and owned fund of Rs.859.43 lakhs.



One Tuberculosis Control Programme centre has been functioning since 1973 under one District Tuberculosis Officer with team of workers for detection and control of T.B. in the district. The centre is being covered both curative and preventive aspect. Facilities are also provided for the domicilliary treatment to the T.B. patients.

The District Health Education Bureau has been functioning since 1977. This bureau was functioning without Health Educator till 1984. One Health Educator was posted in the last part of 1984 and since then, it has been functioning successfully. Health Educator post was up-graded to Deputy Mass Education Information Officer in the month of July'1995. The Health Education Bureau is being provided health educational activities to all the national programmes for better implementation and achievement.

Forest activities was first introduced in Arunachal Pradesh in 1946. In 1948, Balipara Forest Division was established for protection, afforestation and exploitation of forests. This Forest Division covered both Subansiri and Kameng districts. Due to shortage of technical personnel, full-fledged functioning of this division could start from 1955 under one Divisional Forest Officer. In february 1962, the original Balipara Forest Division was divided into Kameng and Subansiri Forest Divisions to extend the forest activities into the interior places. Again in 1970, the Subansiri Forest Division was bifurcated into Banderdewa and Hapoli Forest Division. Later, Hq. of Hapoli Forest Division was shifted to Hapoli(Ziro).

Forest wealth plays vital role from economic point of view by earning revenue for the district. The forest are managed under the provisions of the Assam Forest Regulation of 1981 along with Indian Forest Act and Arunachal Pradesh Forest Manual of 1990, under which local people of Arunachal Pradesh have been given special privileges to collect timbers and other forest produces on free of royalty and not for sale or barter or trade but for their own uses. People do also enjoy privileges of hunting, fishing etc.; but there is limitation on imposition of wildlife Protection Act, 1972. The local people are allowed 7.5% concession in the settlement of forest coups muhals and are allowed 50% concession for the security deposits in any contract for the purpose of settlement of forest coups muhals etc. The timber permit for extraction of wood are only issued to the local people of Arunachal Pradesh. However, the movement of unfinished timber products outside Arunachal Prdesh was banned from 1982 onwards.

At present, the district has only one forest division with its headquarter at Hapoli (Ziro), 6 ranges, namely; Hapoli, Yachuli, Raga, Talle Valley and Palin of Hapoli Forest Division including one range office of wasteland development division and one forest Beat.

The District forest has 51,587.50 hectares under reserved forest, 45,292 hectares under proposed reserved forests and 3,700 hectares under proposed Anchal Reserved Forest totaling to 1,00,579.50 hectares. The important forest species from economic point of view are hollock (Terminalia), Jutuli (Altingia Excelsa), Bahra (Terminalia Belericia), Amari (Ammora Wallichie), Sam (Artocarpus Chaplasa), Chapa (Michelia and Magnolia species), Blue Pine (Pinus Wallichaina) etc.

In the district, during 1999-2000, 516 hectares of land have been brought under Apnavan, 375 hectares under Afforestation, 363 hectares under MFP/MNP, 110 hectare under ANR and 80 hectares under Social forestry. Upto date area of plantation as on 31st March'1999 was 935 hectares under artificial plantation, 180 hectare under Social Forestry and 1550 hectare under Rehabilitation of degraded jhum land (Apnavan). In the year 2000-2001, not a single hectare of area was brought under plantation /afforestation in the district. During the year 2001-2002, 40 hectares of land was brought under plantation (Apnavan).


Earlier the Directorate of Agriculture looks after the Veterinary and Animal Husbandary activities in the district. In the year 1977-78, the Animal Husbandary and Veterinary department was separated from Agricultural department and declared as independent department.

Livestock plays a vital role in the socio-economic life of the people of the district. Till last few decades, socio-economic status of a personal use to be assessed by the numbers of livestock especially mithuns owned by an individual. The people are non-vegetarian and prefer meat as an essential item of food in their diet. In rural areas almost every family domesticates mithun, cow, sheep, goat, pig and poultry. The animal husbandary activities for the development of livestock are mainly divided into three aspects :-
(a) Animal health coverage
(b) Livestock developments and production and
(c) Education and training.

The objective of Veterinary Dispensaries and Veterinary Aid Centres are to provide an adequate and appropriate Veterinary aid to the livestock and poultry population through out the district in such a way that almost all the villages are brought under Animal Husbandary networks, thus minimizing loss of animal by epidemic of both infectious and contagious nature. For effective animal health coverage , at present, 9 veterinary Dispensaries are functioning in the district, which are located at Siro, Ziro Town, Yachuli, Palin, Nyapin, Koloriang, Damin, Tali and Raga.

As on 31.03.2002, the district is having 13 Veterinary Aid Centres which are located at Old Ziro, Rubdi,Yangte, Chambang, Nyapin, Sangram, Sarli, Roing, Boa-Simla, Pungrung, Sito , Ambam, and Dollungmukh. Upto 1977-78, the total numbers of Veterinary Dispensaries and Veterinary Aid Centres within the jurisdiction of present Lower Subansiri & Kurung Kumey districts were 7 and 2 respectively as against 9 and 6 upto 1980-81.

In addition to above, the district has one Mobile Veterinary Dispensary which was opened during 1984-85 and one District Diagnostic Laboratory at Ziro.


Due to the availability of abundant green pasture, the district is conducive for rearing cattle, pig, poultry, Mithun and Goat. One fodder farm at Yachuli has been functioning in the district and are supplying green fodder to cattle breeding farm. Development of pasture land is also undertaken simultaneously with feed and fodder development programme.

In the district, great emphasis has been laid on extensive cross-breeding programme to improve the local livestock for better and more production of milk, meat, eggs etc.

To enhance the Animal Husbandary activities in the districts, distribution of breeding Bulls, exotic Dairy cows, pigs, sheeps etc. are being undertaken every year to progressive and deserving local farmers on subsidy basis for cross breeding and multiplication. For the development of "Mithun" an animal reared by the people for its socio-economic value is cross-breeds as Dairy Animals. At present, 6 Cattle up-grading centres have been setup in the district, out of which 3 centres are in Yachuli circle, 1 in Pistana circle, 1 in Raga circle and 1 in Palin circle respectively.

Besides, one Diary/Cattle Farm, one Goat Farm, and one Chick Rearing Centre are functioning in the district. The poultry farm and chick rearing centre distribute poultry nits to the farmers on subsidy basis under PLAN.


In-service courses of training to the staff of Animal Husbandary and Veterinary department and short term training programme to acquaint the farmers with various livestock development activities are carried out regularly. A school of Veterinary science and Animal Husbandary has also been setup for the training purpose at Pasighat for the district as well as for the state as a whole.

The following table shown the numbers of Animals/Birds treated in Lower Subansiri and Kurung Kumey districts:-

Sl No Year General Case Inoculation/ Vaccinated Castration
1. 1996-97 23315 7108 147
2. 1997-98 22413 4822 69
3. 1998-99 25485 8578 N/A
4. 1999-2000 24973 3931 N/A
5. 2000-2001 27125 12691 N/A
6. 2001-2002 25135 6553 N/A



The Land of Lower Subansiri and Kurung Kumey districts offers good scope for development of fishery and the people are increasingly coming forward to take up it as a subsidiary occupation. Lower Subansiri district can boost the unique position of paddy-cum-fish culture. Fish farms are one of the items of dietary of the people living in this district. Fishing is also a ceremonial ritual both as a form of sports and traditional custom.

The fisheries activities were initiated in Arunachal Pradesh in the year 1957-58 under the Agriculture Department in the month of September, 1980. The fisheries department has been separated from the agriculture department and declared as independent department.

The fisheries development activities in Lower Subansiri was first introduced in the year 1958-59, when the Head of Reru village, by name Padi Lalyang took up mirror carp culture in a tank constructed by him.

The district has a potential for scientifically tapping of inland fish wealth. In the seventh Plan period , emphasis has been given for intensification of Paddy-cum-fish culture, integrated fish farming , reclamation of beels, lakes etc. construction of fish farms and fish seed farms etc.

As on March, 2002, area brought under Pisci-culture was 780 hectares, water area developed was 780 hectares and Paddy-cum-Fish Culture was 625 hectares At present, the district has 6 numbers of Govt. Fish Farm, 10 numbers of People's fish farm, 465 number of village fish ponds and 260 numbers of other fish ponds as against 6, 9, 560 and 235 numbers respectively as on March, 1999 and 6, 9, 643 and 240 numbers respectively as on 31-03-2000.

Under Rural Agricultural scheme, village are allowed to construct fish ponds on 50% subsidy basis. This scheme was introduced in the district during 1972-73. More and more fish farms also being established for adequate supply of fingerlings to the villagers. Fingerlings distributed during the year 2001-2002 to the villagers were 22.00 lakhs number.

Further, to cater the demand of villages for fish seeds, especially against paddy-cum-fish culture in Apatani valley which is a unique programme in this district, the High Altitude Fish Seed Farm, covering an area of 7.4 hectares of land was established at Tarin (near Ziro town) under NEC in 1985-86. Total water area covered is 3.0 hectares and total effected water area covered is 2.75 hectare. Total number of ponds under farm are 74. Out of which 46 numbers are nursery ponds, 16 are rearing ponds and 12 are stocking ponds. Total hatchling produced during 1997-98 was 61.75 lakhs and total sold out was 8.3 lakhs. Total table fish production during 1997-98 was 159 kgs. and number of fish seeds produced was 61.15 lakhs. Number of fish farmers benefitted from farm were 309 and total revenue earned was 51,587. Total fish production during 1999-2000 was 155 M.T. as against 152 M.T. during 1998-99. In the year 2000-2001, total fish production was 157 M.T.During the year 2001-2002, total fish production was 160 M.T. and total fingerlings produced was 22.00 laks.



At present, one District Industries Centre is functioning at the district HQ,Ziro. The main objective of the DIC is the establishment of craft centres/weaving units, comprehensive production centres, establishment of small scale Industries centres and to provide necessary technical, economic, management and other guidance.

There is no factory in the district which is registered under Factory Act,1948. So far the DIC, Ziro has registered 338 numbers of small Scale Industries Units in the district, which are eligible for all incentive and subsidy available for industrially backward areas. DIC has been implementing the scheme for self employment to educated un-employed youth and deputes local youths for Industrial management training and Entrepreneur Development Programme in various parts of India. The DIC also provides raw material assistance to small and cottage Industries through raw material. Banks of APIDFC and extends technical guidance to Entrepreneurs.

Within the present jurisdiction of Lower Subansiri district,2(two) units of Sericulture demonstration Centres at Deed under Pistana circle and Manpolyang under Ziro circle are functioning.


Agriculture is the main occupation of the inhabitants of the district. They practices both Jhum and settled cultivation in the form of WRC/TRC. The Apatani Tribe who lives in the area near the district HQ prefers to do settled cultivation on a vast stretch of fertile land with highly developed irrigation system whereas shifting (Jhuming) cultivation is being practiced mainly by Nishis, Hill Miris and Sulung tribes. Jhuming is the products of century old experience of the Hill men in the North-East region. The climate and soil of the district is conducive for cultivation of Paddy, Maize, Millet, Wheat, Potato, Chilly, Ginger, Pulses, Oil seeds, Sugarcane, Fruit crops and other vegetable crops. The net area sown of the district was 24392 hectares. In order to grow more food grains, the agriculture department has been providing the farmers with grant of subsidy for development of land and also providing high yielding varieties seeds, fertilizers and tools at subsidy rates. The government is also providing free plants protection services to the farmers. During the year 2001-2002, 118 hectares of land were brought under fertilizers.


In the district one Govt.Agriculture Farm has been functioning at Yazali since 1961 with an area of 20 acres. This farm earns good revenue by supplying seed and selling vegetables to different part of the district.



The establishment of Horticulture Department in the districts are mainly for (i) Procurement and distribution of improved fruits.

(ii) Opening of new Orchards/people horticulture garden.

(iii) Scab eradication and plant protection.

(iv) Rejuvenation of old and un-productive fruits plants and horticultural tools and implements.

(v) Cardamom cultivation and

(vi) Vegetable cultivation.

The soil and climatic condition of the districts are favourable for growing Horticultural crops like Apple, pears, plum, orange, banana, guava etc.


At present, 4 nos. of Police station at different administrative Hq. with 167 police personnel are functioning in the district. There are 3 (three) nos. of Police Outpost,5 nos. of WT net and 2 nos.of Fire Station at district Hq. and Old Ziro are also functioning in the district for an effective security measure.

During the year 2001-2002, 136 incidences of crime cases were reported and 20 nos. of road accidents was reported as against 3 nos. during 1998-99, 16 nos. during 1999-2000 and 13 numbers during 2000-2001. 20 nos. of vehicles and 13 nos. of persons killed were reported during the year, 2001-2002. During the year 2001-2002, fire accident occurred was 15 times with estimated loss of Rs.23.92 lakhs as against 6 times with estimated loss of Rs.6.00 lakhs during 1998-99, 7 times with estimated loss of Rs.10.00 lakhs during 1999-2000 and 1 time with estimated loss of Rs.2.50 lakhs during 2000-2001.


The district has one number of employment exchange under the Deputy Commissioner, Ziro. During 2001-2002, total of 375 persons (male=201 and female=174) job seekers were registered their names in the Employment Exchange as against 535 (330 (+) 205) during the year 1998-99, 384 ( male=219 (+) female=165) during the year,1999-2000 and 569 (male=369 (+) female=200 during the year 2000-2001. Non of the job seeker belong to Non-APST was registered during the year 2001-2002.



To preserve the cultural heritage of the local people, the District Research Officer has been established at Ziro during the year 1957. The department is putting all possible effort to preserve the culture in two ways i.e by studying the culture and language and also by preserving old aged materials/articles of the people. Collection and preparation of report of field data on the culture of different tribes of the district are being done for Monographic books.

As on 31st March’2002 total specimen collected and preserved of old aged materials/articles in the District Museum in numbers was 687. A sum of Rs.4080/- revenue was earned during 2001-2002 by selling of research publications in the district.


Registration of birth and death events is compulsory under the births and deaths Registration Act .1969 (No.18 of 1969) and it is enforced in the district with effect from 31st June’1969. In the district, the Deputy Commissioner is the Ex-Officio District Registrar of Births and Deaths. District Statistical Officer is the Additional District Registrar. The Administrative Officer in-charge of respective circle is the registrar and VLWs/Teacher in-charges of the school and Gram Sevikas are the Sub-Registrar of Births and Deaths Events.

Responsibility for reporting of vital event of rural areas to the Registrar or Sub-Registrar lies with Gaon Buras/Gram Panchayat Members. The Head of the family or nearest relatives should also take initiative for reporting vital event. For the events occurring in Hospital/PHC boarding Houses etc. it is the duty of the Head Institution to report the occurrence of vital event to the concern Registrar so that the event can be registered within the stipulated time period.

Birth and Death event occurring in a village / Town are to be registered at the Registration Unit under whose Administrative Jurisdiction that are falls.

Information of Birth and Death events are to be reported in writing to the concern Registrar within 20 days of its occurrence.

(a) After 20 days but within 30 days can be registered on payment of late fee of Rs.3/-.

(b) After 30 days but within one year can be registered with prior permission of Magistrate and on production of an Affidavit made before an Executive Magistrate or Authorised Officer on payment of late fee of Rs.5/-.

(c) After one year shall be registered with prior permission of the Magistrate and on production of an Affidavit made before Magistrate First Class or Executive Magistrate on payment of late fee of Rs.10/-.

The rule also permit on the registration of birth event without name of a child and subsequently name can be enter in the Register within one year without fee and after one year on payment of Rs.5/-

Birth and Death event occur in the Hospital/PHC can be obtained certificate with prior permission of the Registrar by applying an application in plain paper.

The District has 8Nos of Registration Unit in rural area and 1 No in urban area. During the year 2002, 1519 Nos of live births and 183Nos. of death event were reported to all the registration unit of the district as against 613 and 171Nos. during 1999. During 2002,21Nos. of infant death event and 24 Nos of still birth events were reported as against 18, and 16Nos. during 1999.


The Inspector of Legal Metrology Office has been established in the district in March’ 1995. The main objective of the unit is to educate the mass, trading unit and user about the correct use of Weight and Measure, and how the metric system is more beneficial to the people.

The Legal Metrology Department is mainly responsible for enforcement of the following Acts and Rules:-

- The Standard of weight and measure (Enforcement) Act. 1985.
- The Consumer Protection Act. 1986.
- The Packaged Commodities Rules. 1977 and
- The Arunachal Pradesh Weight and Measure (Enforcement Rule1989).

At present, the district is functioning with 4611Nos. of Weights, 725Nos. Capacity measures, 544Nos. weighting instrument, 185Nos. of length measures, 24 Nos. of other machines and 4Nos. of dispensing pumps.


Historical Genesis
Administrative set up
Local inhabitants
Tourist Guidelines
In and around Ziro

Calendar of Events
Paddy - fish culture

Forest Practice
Photo Gallery
Telephone Directory

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